Antimikroba protein in Milk

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MILK contained some protein that had the activity antimikroba that covered laktoferin, in the protection against mastitis (the inflammation of the mammary gland), the protection towards the growth of the bacteria after squeezing (post-harvest), and the protection of the person that consuming milk (especially fresh). Milk from the different species contained the amount of protein that was different from various factors antimikroba. Cattle milk had laktoperoksidase that was high, but laktoferin, and lisosim that was low. Whereas the mother's milk (HEED/humankind) had laktoferin and lisosim that was high, but laktoperoksidase low. The capacity to change the activity from the factor antimikroba this in cattle milk could have an impact on the age of fresh milk and the development of health food and functional that was based in this factor. An amount of protein that was found in milk under various conditions showed the activity antimikroba. For example, imunoglobulin (antibodies) was protective protein that was important in transferring sand immunity from the mother (the mother) to the baby who just was born.

The baby who just was born from many species of the mammal was not born with the effective immunity system. Imunoglobulin protected the baby who just was born from the infection until the immunity system that was owned by them developed. Imunoglobulin was a component from the mechanism of the defence of the natural body. They disintesis in the response to the existence of the particle/the foreign object like the bacteria and the virus. The process of his synthesis was specific for the foreign particle available, that produced a structure immunoglobulin that could know the particle to be foreign and eliminated him from inside the body. Imunoglobulin was found in the high concentration in kolostrum (first milk after the birth) and the low concentration in milk. Apart from imunoglobulin, other proteins that were found in milk that had the activity antimikroba was laktoferin, laktoperoksidase, lisosim, and NAGase. Laktoferin, glikoprotein the iron fastener (ferrum), that was very first was isolated from cattle milk et cetera from ASI. Laktoferin was in large quantities in the mammalian secretion like milk, the tear, saliva, and the liquid seminal, as to several white blood cells.

Laktoferin was one of the minor protein that naturally were in cattle milk in the concentration in general approximately 0.2 gram/litre. In kolostrum, the content laktoferin could be as high as 0,5-1 gram/litre. In HEED and kolostrum mansuia, the concentration laktoferin, was endless, was 2-4 gram/litre and 6-8 gram/litre. In the natural condition, laktoferin only some that tersaturasi with the iron (5-30 percent). Laktoferin had several functions biologik, that is the activity antibakterial/antiinflamatori, the defence towards the infection gastrointestinal, participation in the immunity system sekretori local that bersinergis by several imunoglobulin and other protective protein, was protein antioksidan the iron fastener in the network, and the promotion of the growth of the animal cell like lymphocytes and the cell intestinal. Most micro-organisms needed the iron for the growth and laktoferin had the potential to hinder the growth of the bacteria, and even kill them by hindering the requirement for his iron.

Was shown that laktoferin natural was bakteriostatik against several micro-organisms, covered the bacteria Gram-negative with the requirement for the high iron (coliform; the main cause mastitis), but also towards several Gram-positive like Staphylococcus aureus (also the main cause mastitis), the species bacillus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteria of lactate acid in the side and intestin had the requirement for the low iron and generally was unaffected by lakktoferin.

1. Laktoperoksidase

The enzyme perioksidase could kill the bacteria with the mechanism oksidatif. The activity perioksidase was gotten in various gland secretions eksokrin that covered saliva, the tear, the secretion bronkhial, nasal, and intestinal, as milk. Peroksidase milk was known as laktoperoksidase that was one of the protective protein non-imunoglobulin and the enzyme that stood out in his role protected the mammary gland towards the invasion of the microbe. Each molecule laktoperoksidase contained one iron atom. Cattle milk contained laktopeperioksidase with the concentration approximately 0,03 gram/litre. In kolostrum cattle, the content laktoperoksidase very low, but increased fast after 4-5 days postpartum. The level of the activity laktoperoksidase in heeded approximately 20 times was lower than available in cattle milk. Laktoperoksidase personally did not have the activity antibakterial. However, together with hydrogen perioksida and thiosianat, laktoperioksidase formed a system antibakterial natural that was potential that was acknowledged as the system laktoperioksidase. Hydrogen perioksida and thiosianat naturally terdistribusi in the network and humankind, although his concentration was very low. The influence antibakterial from the system laktoperioksidase diperantai by the reaction of hydrogen perioksida and thiosianat in.

2. Lisosim

Lisosim was the enzyme that was in milk from several species especially ASI. Ada two types lisosim. One type that was found in white the chicken egg and was known as chicken type lisosim-c. The other type that was found in white the goose egg and was known with goose type or lisosim-g. Lisosim humankind and the horse was lisosim the type c. Whereas cattle milk contained the two lisosim-c and -g because the two types were found to various cattle body fluids and in the network of the side of cattle. Lisosim killed the bacteria with formation disruption of the association glikosidik among two components peptidoglikan that was met to the wall of the bacterial cell. The activity lisosim almost could not be detected in cattle milk, but very high in HEED (0,12 gram/litre). The concentration lisosim highest in kolostrum and milk prekolostral humankind. The heating of cattle milk in 75 levels celcius while 15 minutes damaged 25 percent activity lisosim. However, lisosim HEED stabler against hot than lisosim cattle milk.

Lisosim had the activity antibakterial against several bacterium. This enzyme usually functions in connection with him with laktoferin and imunoglobulin A (IgA). Lisosim effective against Escherichia coli when co-operating with IgA. Lisosim caused lisis several species salmonellae co-operated with askorbat and peroxide. The two substances were in the concentration that was low in milk. Irradiation microwave could reduce the activity lisosim against E coli. Lisosim could restrict the migration neutrafil in the broken network and possibly functioned as the agency antiinflamatori.

3. NAGase

NAGase was the enzyme that had the activity that had implications as an indicator of network damage during mastitis. He was the enzyme lisosomal that was secreted in large quantities to the mammary gland during involusi and inflamasi the enzyme NAGase also was determined to the cattle secretion that was other like the uterus liquid. The specific function NAGase to the mammary gland was not yet known well, but the research indicated that NAGase possibly showed the activity antimikroba. The researcher studied the effect bakterisidal from NAGase to several general pathogen bacterium was found to the cattle uterus, like Actinomyces pyogenes, Stapphycoccus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NAGase hindered this bacteria, but E.coli and Enterobacter aerogenes was not hindered.


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