PROFILE OF FATTY ACIDS ON YOGHURT BASED ON COW’S MILK AND GOAT’S MILK

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The introduction

Cream generally was the chemical compound that entered the ester group that was compiled on fatty acids and glycerol. Ninety percent of the cream component was fatty acids that were divided on fatty acids was not bored and the bored fatty acid. The bored fatty acid that was dominant in cream in order was sour miristat, palmitat and stearat with the range 7 - 11%; 25 - 29% and 7 - 13% from the total fatty acid (Adnan, 1984). The three fatty acids have the shape of solid in the temperature of the room. Whereas the fatty acid was not bored that was contained was the oleic acid with the range 30 - 40% and in the temperature of the room have the shape of liquid (Apandi, 1993). The characteristics of cream were also marked by the existence of the content of acid butirat and kaproat with the range 3 - 4.5% and 1.3 - 2.2% (deMan, 1997 and Widodo, 2003). Fat in milk in the form of millions of small balls that had in general a diameter of 3 mikron (Buckle and al., 1987). Noor, (2002) and Merciful et al. (1992) explained that butiran-butiran or that was mentioned also globula spread equitable in milk as the emulsion of fat in water, where globula fat was in the phase terdispersi. Every time globula fat was covered by the thin layer that consisted of protein and fosfolopida, especially lesitin that was met in a small number in milk. The existence of this layer that caused globula fat could not gather to one another so as the emulsion of milk became stable. The content of fat in milk eventually can be influential in the formation of the fatty acid and at the end will create the typical taste (Legowo, 2002). The solution to fat (lipolisis) was believed in was the reaction of important chemistry in the development of the taste in the production yogurt. Although being known that lipolisis it was considered the reaction of important biochemistry in the development of the feeling, not many publications that were related to the solution to fat for the process of fermentation. Lipolisis for the process of fermentation of milk it was suspected was influential towards the taste of the end product because of producing the fatty acid was easy to fly or ”Volatile Fatty Acid” (VFA). According to Simanjuntak and Silalahi (2003) that including the VFA group including acid kaproat, acid kaprilat and acid kaprat. According to Soeparno (1992) this fatty acid including the group of the fatty acid was easy protracted, so as to play an important role in the formation of the taste of the product of the milk whim. Goat milk was milk that contained the element that more was rich in the short chain fatty acid and the medium was compared to cattle milk (Van den Berg, 1990). Moeljanto and Wiryanto (2002), also stated that goat milk had fat that more was easy to be digested, was easy to yawn (volatile), and was unstable as well as was easy to hang loosely, so as influenced flavor milk and derivat him (Merciful and al., 1992; Soeparno,1992). Because of lipolisis was the available process in each production yogurt, then the amount of beginning fat of milk, very possibly was influential against the number of fatty acids at the time of yogurt was formed. Because goat milk had the content of fat that was higher than cattle milk then, the fatty acid composition inside yogurt that came from goat milk also very possibly will show the difference in the matter of the quantity compared with the fatty acid in yogurt that was made from cattle milk. This research aimed at analysing the content of the short chain fatty acid (acid kaproat, acid kaprilat, acid kaprat) for the process of fermentation of milk to yogurt. This research also it was hoped could give information about the change in the short chain fatty acid (acid kaproat, acid kaprilat, acid kaprat) for the process of fermentation.

The MATERIAL AND the METHOD

This research was carried out in July – in December 2005. The research was carried out in the Teknologi Hasil Ternak Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Diponegoro Laboratory and the Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Pertanian Laboratory. Material that was used was fresh cattle milk, fresh milk of goat milk, “Starter Culture” (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophillus), alcohol 70% and aquades. The material for the testing of the acidity that is NaOH 0.1 N, phenolphtalein 1%. Whereas the material to preparasi the sample of the testing of the fatty acid with the GC method that is methanol, dietil the ether, nitrogen gas, BF3 methanol, n-Hexsana. Equipment that was used was a set of Chromatography Gas implement (GC), the oven, the incubator, the refrigerator, otoklaf, the mixer, glasses measured, glasses beaker, erlenmeyer, the thermometer, the pipette measured, label paper, waterbath, alumunium foil, cotton, magnetic stirrer, bunsen, the analytical opinion.

The Research method

Before was carried out by preparations for the research that covered the provisions of the room and equipment. The sterilisation of the laboratory, heat-resistant equipment disterilisasi dry in the oven in the temperature 170ºC for 1 hour and the sterilisation of equipment that was used in the research that is with diautoklaf in the temperature 1210C for 15 minutes.

The production “Starter”

The production method of culture “starter” in accordance with the Tamime guidance and Robinson (1989), was carried out in three stages that is the production ”starter” afterwards was continued with rejuvenated ”starter”. Further “starter” this was used to “starter” in the production yogurt with the concentration 5%.

The Grating procedure of the Fatty Acid

The grating was done by using the GC method of knowing the acidity of short chain fat (acid kaproat, acid kaprilat and acid kaprat) with the system esterifikasi acid- the fatty acid from fat became the ester- his ester, that is with the procedure: 1). Measured 5 ml yogurt was put in the tube of the reaction, tambakan methanol and dietil the ether with the comparison 1:1 gojog; 2). Formed by two layers that were separated where the ether was gotten in the layer on the solution; 3). This ether afterwards diuapkan with nitrogen gas until the ether yawned all; 4). Supernatan that was left afterwards was increased BF3 methanol ± 3 drops; 5). Mixed used “hot plate stirrer” (40-600C) ± 30 minutes; 6). Cool down; 7). Added n-Hexana ± 3 drops and divotek until the solution formed two layers; 8). Take 1 μm the clear solution to the part on the solution. The ester- the fatty acid ester that was prepared afterwards diinjeksikan through injektor the GC implement for the separation, and the identification as well as the quantitative determination of acid- his fatty acid could be done from khromatogram that was received (Kirk, and al., 1991 and Sudarmadji and al., 1996). The acidity of fat was analysed descriptively that compared the fatty acid in yogurt cattle milk and yogurt goat milk with the acidity of fat in fermentation for 0 hours, 3 hours, and 5 hours.

Results AND discussions

Saw results that were received then acid kaproat showed the existence trend the rise up to the research end, although to the middle of the fermentation period, was gotten by the decline in the number of fatty acids kaproat. In old the incubation 5 hours or the research end, acid kaproat experienced the rise. This showed that the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) worked produced lactate acid as the main product and the fatty acid was easy yawned (volatile) including acid kaproat. The enzyme lipase that was produced from metabolism of the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) and that was met naturally in milk as well as the characteristics lipolitik that was had by him menghidrolisis fat will produce fatty acids including acid kaproat inside and glycerol. This in accordance with the Merciful opinion et al. (1992) that the enzyme lipase would menghidrolisis fat became fatty acids and glycerol where the enzyme lipase this came from the microbe or was gotten naturally in milk. Widodo (2003) explained that lipolisis was caused by the existence of the enzyme lipase that was active in the high temperature and happened to fat that experienced damage to the membrane globula.
In the incubation 3 hours, the amount of acid kaproat could experience the decline in the amount, this was really enabled because of the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) was not yet optimum in producing acid kaproat because still in the growth phase, this in accordance with the Kosikowski opinion (1977) that said in the growth phase of the bacteria needed organic matters for his growth. Bylund (1995) said that the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) needed organic nitrogen to grow that was received from reform kasein milk with help of the enzyme. Results of the grating of the fatty acid kaprilat, showed that while the process of fermentation was received trend the rise although to the middle of the research, showed the existence of the decline in the amount of acid kaprilat. At the end the research, acid kaprilat experienced the rise. This showed that the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) worked to produce lactate acid as the main product and the fatty acid was easy yawned (volatile) including acid kaprilat inside. The enzyme lipase that was produced from metabolism of the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) and that was met naturally in milk as well as the characteristics lipolitik that was had by the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) that is menghidrolisis fat will produce fatty acids including acid kaprilat inside and glycerol. This in accordance with the Merciful opinion et al. (1992) that the enzyme lipase would menghidrolisis fat became fatty acids and glycerol where the enzyme lipase this came from the microbe or was gotten naturally in milk. Widodo (2003) explained that lipolosis was caused by the existence of the enzyme lipase that was active in the high temperature and happened to fat that experienced damage to the membrane globula.
In the incubation 3 hours, the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) not yet optimal produced acid kaprilat because still in the growth phase, this in accordance with the Kosikowski opinion (1977) that said that in the growth phase bekteri needed organic matters for his growth. Bylund (1995) said that the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) needed organic nitrogen to grow that was received from reform kasein milk with help of the enzyme.
At the end the acid research kaprat in yogurt cattle milk, experienced the rise compared with early penelitian. this did not happen in yogurt goat milk. Although the increase in the amount of acid not happening kaprat between early of the incubation and the incubation end, but continued to be gotten by the rise if compared with the middle period of the incubation. In the incubation 3 hours, the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) was suspected of being not yet optimal in producing acid kaprat because still in the growth phase, this in accordance with the Kosikowski opinion (1977) that said that in the growth phase bekteri needed organic matters for his growth. Bylund (1995) said that the bacteria of lactate acid (the BALL) needed organic nitrogen to grow that was received from reform kasein milk with help of the enzyme. Schlegel (1993) explained that all the organisms got carbon from nutrient organic. Nutrient organic this some terasimilasi in the cell substance and partly was oxidised to receive energy for the growth.

The CONCLUSION

Results of the research showed that the long difference of incubation time in the process of fermentation that is the production yogurt goat milk was influential towards the content of fatty acids that covered acid kaproat, acid kaprilat and acid kaprat. These fatty acids experienced the rise if being compared between early of the research and the research end. However to the middle of the incubation period, was gotten by the decline in all the fatty acid numbers in all the kinds yogurt.


Taken from proseding the PATPI seminar, in August 2006


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